Quantum Computers for DUMMIES! Revolution in the computer industry and it's impact on the future

Quantum Computers for DUMMIES! Revolution in the computer industry and it's impact on the future

Brief introduction

Have you Ever wondered how  the technology  could further advance? I mean, let's look at the specification of the first Macintosh PC ever made by apple which was released on May 1984. It consisted of 128K of RAM, 64 KB of ROM, a Processor with 1 core and a Graphic chip.


Now let's look at today's Apple Latest MacBook, the Apple MacBook Pro 16. It consists of 36 GB of RAM, up to 2TB of ROM, M3 processor (16 cores), and the Graphics chip (40 cores).


If you thought for a moment about the difference between the first Mac and today's Mac, you would realize that one of the main difference between them was the number of components which is compressed into nano-sized form --using nano technology-- to fit inside the Computer. And here, Comes the difference between modern Computers and Quantum Computers


What is the Difference between Modern Computers and Quantum Computer?

Comparing Modern Computers with Quantum computers is Ridiculous, it's like comparing a Car to an Airplane. Both of them are used for the same reason, which is transporting you from a place to another. But they are completely in terms of manufacturing, and usage (you can't use the Car to go from Australia to Germany, and you won't use the Airplane to go from Home to Work).

Quantum Computers relies on the concepts and principles of Quantum Physics and Quantum Mechanics to operate, like Superposition and Qubits --more about it later. In the other hand, Modern computers --also known as classical computers-- utilize principles of classical physics, particularly classical mechanics and electromagnetism. In addition it uses the classical basic unit which Bits --while Quantum computers uses Qubits.


What are Qubits, and how do they relate to superposition?

Firstly, in order to understand Qubits, the Concept of Superposition needs to be first clarified, and for detailed information about it, I recommend watching the video above, or you could just continue reading the brief explanation.



Superposition is a fundamental principle in quantum physics where a quantum system, can exist in multiple states simultaneously. This means that instead of being limited to a single state. For example, Imagine you're flipping a coin, but instead of a regular coin, you have a special quantum coin. When you flip this quantum coin, it doesn't immediately show heads or tails--Unlike normal coin, which is either head or tail. Instead, it's in a state where it's both heads and tails at the same time. Or let's conder a quantum room, which can be either dark or light at the same time. This is similar to superposition in quantum mechanics. Difficult to understand, isn't it? Well, Just keep in mind When something is in superposition state, it is in multiple state.


Unlike Bits, which can be in either 1 or 0, but not both. Qubits or Quantum bits can be both. Let's take a look at an example. Let's consider a spinning electron --don't get scared after reading the word "electron", it is just an example of a qubit. The spin of an electron can be used as a qubit. If the electron spins up and down simultaneously, it can be used as a qubit, because spinning down --which could be considered "0" -- and up --which can be considered "1"-- at the same time, can create a state in which the qubit is 01.




Why are Quantum computers amazing?

Well, because it uses Qubits. A modern computer that uses bits can only perform one task at a time, because as mentioned earlier, a bit could be either "0" or "1", but not both. Meanwhile, a qubit can be both "0" and "1". This means that Quantum Computers could do tasks in parallel. This parallelism enables quantum computers to potentially solve certain problems much faster than modern computers. Additionally, Quantum algorithms --created for quantum computers-- can provide exponential speedups over the best-known classical algorithms for certain types of problems. This means that as the size of the problem increases, the time it takes to solve it on a quantum computer may grow much slower than on a modern computer. 

To put it in context, in late 2019, Google claimed that it had managed to solve a problem that would take 10,000 years for the world’s fastest supercomputer within just 200s using a quantum computer. Imagine, 10,000 years long freaking problem is solved in 3 minutes and 10 seconds! 


Impacts and Challenges

The Positive Side of Quantum Computers

Quantum computers could be highly beneficial in a lot of Fields including Machine learning, as it would help in the optimizing process of the AI model and enhance it's ability to learn faster. Additionally, it can help in the medical field. Let's take Cancer as an example. Quantum computing can simulate molecular interactions more accurately and efficiently than classical computers. By accurately predicting how molecules interact with cancer cells, quantum computers can accelerate the discovery and development of new cancer drugs. These drugs can then be further tested and developed in clinical trials to determine their effectiveness in treating cancer.

The Devilish Side😈

Quantum computers is freaking dangerous! Especially when it falls in the wrong hand! Encryption methods today are designed so that it would thousands or maybe millions of years to be cracked. However, that duration is only for modern computers. For the Quantum computers, it is just a matter of hours or maybe days to crack an encryption or a password. A revolution has to be made in the field of Cryptography to be able to beat quantum computers

That's why not only companies, but also nations, are competing fervently to develop quantum computers. China, for example, invested over 15 billion dollars in quantum computers. Recently, Some tech giants like IBM and Google have successfully created quantum computer, it is however still in the development process. 



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